White Cargo

Author: Don Jordan
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814743041
Release Date: 2008-03-08
Genre: History

White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain’s American colonies. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London’s streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide “breeders” for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock. Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history. This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.

White Gold

Author: Giles Milton
Publisher: Sceptre
ISBN: 9781444717723
Release Date: 2012-04-12
Genre: History

This is the forgotten story of the million white Europeans, snatched from their homes and taken in chains to the great slave markets of North Africa to be sold to the highest bidder. Ignored by their own governments, and forced to endure the harshest of conditions, very few lived to tell the tale. Using the firsthand testimony of a Cornish cabin boy named Thomas Pellow, Giles Milton vividly reconstructs a disturbing, little known chapter of history. Pellow was bought by the tyrannical sultan of Morocco who was constructing an imperial pleasure palace of enormous scale and grandeur, built entirely by Christian slave labour. As his personal slave, he would witness first-hand the barbaric splendour of the imperial court, as well as experience the daily terror of a cruel regime. Gripping, immaculately researched, and brilliantly realised, WHITE GOLD reveals an explosive chapter of popular history, told with all the pace and verve of one of our finest historians.

Testimony of an Irish Slave Girl

Author: Kate McCafferty
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101176825
Release Date: 2003-01-28
Genre: Fiction

Kidnapped from Galway, Ireland, as a young girl, shipped to Barbados, and forced to work the land alongside African slaves, Cot Daley's life has been shaped by injustice. In this stunning debut novel, Kate McCafferty re-creates, through Cot's story, the history of the more than fifty thousand Irish who were sold as indentured servants to Caribbean plantation owners during the seventeenth century. As Cot tells her story-the brutal journey to Barbados, the harrowing years of fieldwork on the sugarcane plantations, her marriage to an African slave and rebel leader, and the fate of her children—her testimony reveals an exceptional woman's astonishing life.

Black Slaveowners

Author: Larry Koger
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 0786451289
Release Date: 2011-11-18
Genre: Social Science

Most Americans, both black and white, believe that slavery was a system maintained by whites to exploit blacks, but this authoritative study reveals the extent to which African Americans played a significant role as slave masters. Examining South Carolina's diverse population of African-American slaveowners, the book demonstrates that free African Americans widely embraced slavery as a viable economic system and that they--like their white counterparts--exploited the labor of slaves on their farms and in their businesses. Drawing on the federal census, wills, mortgage bills of sale, tax returns, and newspaper advertisements, the author reveals the nature of African-American slaveholding, its complexity, and its rationales. He describes how some African-American slave masters had earned their freedom but how many others--primarily mulattoes born of free parents--were unfamiliar with slavery's dehumanization.

Colonists for Sale

Author: Clifford Lindsey Alderman
Publisher: MacMillan Publishing Company
ISBN: 0027002209
Release Date: 1975-01-01
Genre: Indentured servants

Examines the origin, working conditions, and eventual fate of indentured servants in America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Christian Slaves Muslim Masters

Author: Robert C. Davis
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0333719662
Release Date: 2003-12-05
Genre: History

In this book, Davis uses many new historical sources to re-examine one of the least understood forms of human bondage in modern times - the systematic enslavement of white, Christian Europeans by the Muslims of North Africa's Barbary Coast. Far from the minor phenomenon that many have assumed it to be, white slavery in the Maghreb turns out, in Davis' account, to have had enormous consequences, ensnaring as many as a million victims from France and Italy to Spain, Holland, Great Britain, the Americas, and even Iceland in the centuries when it flourished between 1500 and 1800. Whether dealing with the methods used by slavers, the experience of slavery, or its destructive impact on the slaves themselves, Davis demonstrates the many often surprising similarities between this 'other' slavery and the much better known human-bondage suffered at the very same time by black Africans in the Americas. -- Back cover.

White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia

Author: James Curtis Ballagh
Publisher: Heritage Books
ISBN: 078841707X
Release Date: 1895
Genre: History

This concise, scholarly study focuses on the English origins of white servitude and the roll of white indentured servants in the development of the colony of Virginia. Special attention is also paid to the legislation needed to manage this segment of the population and the particulars of gaining one's freedom from such a system. The establishment of white servitude in the Americas is traced by Mr. Ballagh directly to the organization of the London Company, the division of the Virginia Company of London, which governed the Virginia colony. The first class of indented servants entered into their contracts voluntarily for a definite term of service in exchange for payment of their passage to the New World and a land grant on completion of their contract. The majority of indented servants were of this class. The second were undesirables, persons whom legal authority condemned to a term of servitude as punishment for a misdemeanor already committed or as a means of preventing unemployment or idleness. This class was composed primarily of paupers, debtors, orphans, and a large number of political agitators who had committed no criminal acts, but were unwelcome in England and sentenced to transportation. Men and women of both classes flooded the colony in the 1600s and early 1700s and had an enormous impact on both the population of the colony and its laws.

Black Masters A Free Family of Color in the Old South

Author: Michael P. Johnson
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393245486
Release Date: 1986-04-17
Genre: History

"A remarkably fine work of creative scholarship." —C. Vann Woodward, New York Review of Books In 1860, when four million African Americans were enslaved, a quarter-million others, including William Ellison, were "free people of color." But Ellison was remarkable. Born a slave, his experience spans the history of the South from George Washington and Thomas Jefferson to Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. In a day when most Americans, black and white, worked the soil, barely scraping together a living, Ellison was a cotton-gin maker—a master craftsman. When nearly all free blacks were destitute, Ellison was wealthy and well-established. He owned a large plantation and more slaves than all but the richest white planters. While Ellison was exceptional in many respects, the story of his life sheds light on the collective experience of African Americans in the antebellum South to whom he remained bound by race. His family history emphasizes the fine line separating freedom from slavery.

The Irish Slaves

Author: Rhetta Akamatsu
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 145630612X
Release Date: 2010-10-28
Genre: History

"How to deal with the Irish...it was a tricky problem. For years, the answer was to enslave them, sell them, make them someone else's property or someone else's problem. If you thought that only Africans or other black races were enslaved in Barbados, West India, the American colonies and beyond, this book will open your eyes." -- P. [4] of cover.

White Cargo

Author: Felicity Kendal
ISBN: 0140271589
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Actors

Felicity Kendal began writing these richly entertaining and deeply honest memoirs at her father's bedside as he lay in a coma. As she moves hauntingly between the present and the past, Felicity Kendal recaptures her magical childhood in India, her complex relationship with her father and the rest of the family, her love affairs and the acting career that led to her being recognised as one of the outstanding actresses of her generation. 'A remarkable first book about acting, travelling, exile, loving and losing; a book about families and, above all, a book about fathers and daughters.' Angela Lambert, Good Housekeeping

Migrants Servants and Slaves

Author: Russell R. Menard
Publisher: Variorum
ISBN: UOM:39015050526980
Release Date: 2001
Genre: History

Written by one of the leading economic historians of British America, the essays in Migrants, servants, and slaves (several of which have achieved the status of minor classics) address a series of topics of central importance to the field. The central theme is that of the transition from a labor force dominated by English indentured servants, to one composed largely of African slaves. In the enquiry the author examines the changing composition of the servant population in the British North American colonies, the determinants of the pace and volume of servant migration, and the opportunities available to servants who completed their terms. On the subject of slavery, he looks at how the initial investments were financed, and the ability of the slave population to reproduce itself.

Without Indentures

Author: Richard Hayes Phillips
ISBN: 0806319798
Release Date: 2013-08
Genre: Reference

"In this groundbreaking work, Richard Hayes Phillips has collected the names of more than five thousand children kidnapped from Ireland, Scotland, England, and New England, and sold into slavery in Maryland and Virginia, c. 1660-1720. By English law dated 1659, it was lawful for justices of the peace to kidnap children found begging or vagrant and ship them to the plantations as servants without indentures. The younger the child, the longer the sentence, and the colonial county courts were the judges of their ages. These five thousand names, culled from the Court Order Books, some of which have not been examined for centuries, have now been compiled into one genealogical index. In almost every case the entries provide the name of the child, the name of the owner, the date they appeared in court, and the age assigned by the judges, many of whom owned the very children they were sentencing to servitude. For ease of use, the volume contains an index to the ships--and their captains--that imported these kidnapped children, as well as a surname index to guide the researcher to alternate or incorrect spellings as found in the Court Order Books. The Introduction to Mr. Phillips's book describes the history and conditions of white servitude in colonial Maryland and Virginia, along with an annotated list of the sources he consulte"--The publisher.

Runaway America

Author: David Waldstreicher
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0809083159
Release Date: 2005-08-10
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Capturing the paradox of Benjamin Franklin on the issue of slavery, the author chronicles Franklin's time as an indentured servant as well as his later work as a publisher, where he profited from advertising notices about runaway slaves.