Author: John Laird
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2012
Soar is a cognitive architecture that integrates knowledge-intensive reasoning, reactive execution, hierarchical reasoning, planning, and learning from experience. This book describes details of Soars component memories and processes and offers demonstrations of individual components, components working in combination, and real-world applications.
The original purpose of this research was to extend the Soar cognitive architecture based on knowledge gleaned from psychology and brain-based science. Specifically looking at extensions related to memory and learning (episodic, semantic) and emotion. The direction changed when an opportunity became available to collaborate with other biologically-inspired cognitive architecture (BICA) projects to design a completely new BICA called TOSCA. In addition to designing a new architecture, we also designed and implemented a framework that can be used to develop biologically-inspired cognitive architectures. The new framework is called STORM. Finally, throughout the development of TOSCA and STORM we continued the work on developing computational models of emotion. This work continued because even with the design of TOSCA, the exact role of emotion in cognitive architecture remains unclear.
Author: Allen Newell
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Release Date: 1994-01
Psychology is now ready for unified theories of cognition--so says Allen Newell, a leading investigator in computer science and cognitive psychology. Not everyone will agree on a single set of mechanisms that will explain the full range of human cognition, but such theories are within reach and we should strive to articulate them. In this book, Newell makes the case for unified theories by setting forth a candidate. After reviewing the foundational concepts of cognitive science--knowledge, representation, computation, symbols, architecture, intelligence, and search--Newell introduces Soar, an architecture for general cognition. A pioneer system in artificial intelligence, Soar is the first problem solver to create its own subgoals and learn continuously from its own experience. Newell shows how Soar's ability to operate within the real-time constraints of intelligent behavior, such as immediate-response and item-recognition tasks, illustrates important characteristics of the human cognitive structure. Throughout, Soar remains an exemplar: we know only enough to work toward a fully developed theory of cognition, but Soar's success so far establishes the viability of the enterprise. Given its integrative approach, Unified Theories of Cognition will be of tremendous interest to researchers in a variety of fields, including cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology, and computer science. This exploration of the nature of mind, one of the great problems of philosophy, should also transcend disciplines and attract a large scientific audience.
Author: Turner, Jeremy Owen
Publisher: IGI Global
Release Date: 2016-06-06
Cognitive architectures represent an umbrella term to describe ways in which the flow of thought can be engineered towards cerebral and behavioral outcomes. Cognitive Architectures are meant to provide top-down guidance, a knowledge base, interactive heuristics and concrete or fuzzy policies for which the virtual character can utilize for intelligent interaction with his/her/its situated virtual environment. Integrating Cognitive Architectures into Virtual Character Design presents emerging research on virtual character artificial intelligence systems and procedures and the integration of cognitive architectures. Emphasizing innovative methodologies for intelligent virtual character integration and design, this publication is an ideal reference source for graduate-level students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of artificial intelligence, gaming, and computer science.
Author: Chris Eliasmith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2013-04-16
How to Build a Brain provides a detailed exploration of a new cognitive architecture - the Semantic Pointer Architecture - that takes biological detail seriously, while addressing cognitive phenomena. Topics ranging from semantics and syntax, to neural coding and spike-timing-dependent plasticity are integrated to develop the world's largest functional brain model.
Author: David M. Steier
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 2014-03-05
Based on a symposium honoring the extensive work of Allen Newell -- one of the founders of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and the systematic study of computational architectures -- this volume demonstrates how unifying themes may be found in the diversity that characterizes current research on computers and cognition. The subject matter includes: * an overview of cognitive and computer science by leading researchers in the field; * a comprehensive description of Allen Newell's "Soar" -- a computational architecture he developed as a unified theory of cognition; * commentary on how the Soar theory of cognition relates to important issues in cognitive and computer science; * rigorous treatments of controversial issues in cognition -- methodology of cognitive science, hybrid approaches to machine learning, word-sense disambiguation in understanding material language, and the role of capability processing constraints in architectural theory; * comprehensive and systematic methods for studying architectural evolution in both hardware and software; * a thorough discussion of the use of analytic models in human computer interaction; * extensive reviews of important experiments in the study of scientific discovery and deduction; and * an updated analysis of the role of symbols in information processing by Herbert Simon. Incorporating the research of top scientists inspired by Newell's work, this volume will be of strong interest to a large variety of scientific communities including psychologists, computational linguists, computer scientists and engineers, and interface designers. It will also be valuable to those who study the scientific process itself, as it chronicles the impact of Newell's approach to research, simultaneously delving into each scientific discipline and producing results that transcend the boundaries of those disciplines.
This title features chapters on machines to explain the mind, Domer's 'blueprint for a mind', representation of and for mental processes, language and future avenues, from PSI to microPSI, and much more.
Author: David Vernon
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2014-10-17
This book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the emerging field of artificial cognitive systems. Cognition, both natural and artificial, is about anticipating the need for action and developing the capacity to predict the outcome of those actions. Drawing on artificial intelligence, developmental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, the field of artificial cognitive systems has as its ultimate goal the creation of computer-based systems that can interact with humans and serve society in a variety of ways. This primer brings together recent work in cognitive science and cognitive robotics to offer readers a solid grounding on key issues.The book first develops a working definition of cognitive systems -- broad enough to encompass multiple views of the subject and deep enough to help in the formulation of theories and models. It surveys the cognitivist, emergent, and hybrid paradigms of cognitive science and discusses cognitive architectures derived from them. It then turns to the key issues, with chapters devoted to autonomy, embodiment, learning and development, memory and prospection, knowledge and representation, and social cognition. Ideas are introduced in an intuitive, natural order, with an emphasis on the relationships among ideas and building to an overview of the field. The main text is straightforward and succinct; sidenotes drill deeper on specific topics and provide contextual links to further reading.
In the chapters in Part I of this textbook the author introduces the fundamental ideas of artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. In Part II he explains key AI methods such as search, evolutionary computing, logic-based reasoning, knowledge representation, rule-based systems, pattern recognition, neural networks, and cognitive architectures. Finally, in Part III, he expands the context to discuss theories of intelligence in philosophy and psychology, key applications of AI systems, and the likely future of artificial intelligence. A key feature of the author's approach is historical and biographical footnotes, stressing the multidisciplinary character of the field and its pioneers. The book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in computer science, engineering, and other applied sciences, and the appendices offer short formal, mathematical models and notes to support the reader.
Author: Stan Franklin
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 1997
Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind.
Author: David Danks
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2014-09-12
Our ordinary, everyday thinking requires an astonishing range of cognitive activities, yet our cognition seems to take place seamlessly. We move between cognitive processes with ease, and different types of cognition seem to share information readily. In this book, David Danks proposes a novel cognitive architecture that can partially explain two aspects of human cognition: its relatively integrated nature and our effortless ability to focus on the relevant factors in any particular situation. Danks argues that both of these features of cognition are naturally explained if many of our cognitive representations are understood to be structured like graphical models. The computational framework of graphical models is widely used in machine learning, but Danks is the first to offer a book-length account of its use to analyze multiple areas of cognition. Danks demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by reinterpreting a variety of cognitive theories in terms of graphical models. He shows how we can understand much of our cognition -- in particular causal learning, cognition involving concepts, and decision making -- through the lens of graphical models, thus clarifying a range of data from experiments and introspection. Moreover, Danks demonstrates the important role that cognitive representations play in a unified understanding of cognition, arguing that much of our cognition can be explained in terms of different cognitive processes operating on a shared collection of cognitive representations. Danks's account is mathematically accessible, focusing on the qualitative aspects of graphical models and separating the formal mathematical details in the text.
In Cognitive Science 3e Friedenberg and Silverman provide a solid understanding of the major theoretical and empirical contributions of cognitive science. Their text, thoroughly updated for this new third edition, describes the major theories of mind as well as the major experimental results that have emerged within each cognitive science discipline. Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is the mind? How do we see, think, and remember? Can we create machines that are conscious and capable of self-awareness? This books examines these questions and many more. Focusing on the approach of a particular cognitive science field in each chapter, the authors describe its methodology, theoretical perspective, and findings and then offer a critical evaluation of the field. Features: Offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary introduction to the field of cognitive science and issues of mind. Interdisciplinary Crossroads” sections at the end of each chapter focus on research topics that have been investigated from multiple perspectives, helping students to understand the link between varying disciplines and cognitive science. End-of-chapter “Summing Up” sections provide a concise summary of the major points addressed in each chapter to facilitate student comprehension and exam preparation “Explore More” sections link students to the Student Study Site where the authors have provided activities to help students more quickly master course content and prepare for examinations Supplements: A password-protected Instructor’s Resource contains PowerPoint lectures, a test bank and other pedagogical material.The book's Study Site features Web links, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes.
Author: David Vernon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-12-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This book addresses the central role played by development in cognition. The focus is on applying our knowledge of development in natural cognitive systems, specifically human infants, to the problem of creating artificial cognitive systems in the guise of humanoid robots. The approach is founded on the three-fold premise that (a) cognition is the process by which an autonomous self-governing agent acts effectively in the world in which it is embedded, (b) the dual purpose of cognition is to increase the agent's repertoire of effective actions and its power to anticipate the need for future actions and their outcomes, and (c) development plays an essential role in the realization of these cognitive capabilities. Our goal in this book is to identify the key design principles for cognitive development. We do this by bringing together insights from four areas: enactive cognitive science, developmental psychology, neurophysiology, and computational modelling. This results in roadmap comprising a set of forty-three guidelines for the design of a cognitive architecture and its deployment in a humanoid robot. The book includes a case study based on the iCub, an open-systems humanoid robot which has been designed specifically as a common platform for research on embodied cognitive systems .