The Laws of Solon

Author: D. F. Leão
Publisher: I. B. Tauris
ISBN: 1784536687
Release Date: 2016-09-30

Solon (c 658-558 BC) is famous as both statesman and poet but also, and above all, as the paramount lawmaker of ancient Athens. Though his works survive only in fragments, we know from the writings of Herodotus and Plutarch that his constitutional reforms against the venality, greed and political power-play of Attica's tyrants and noblemen were hugely influential-and may even be said to have laid the foundations of western democracy. Solon's legal injunctions covered the widest range of topics and issues: economics and labour; sexual morality; social issues; and society and politics. Yet despite their fame and influence (and Solon's life and work generated a lively reception history), no complete edition of these writings has yet been published. This book offers the definitive critical edition of Solon's laws that has long been needed. It comprises the original Greek fragments with English translations, commentaries, a comprehensive introduction and important comparative Latin texts. It will be enthusiastically welcomed by specialists in ancient Greek language and history.

Violence and Community

Author: Ioannis K. Xydopoulos
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781317001782
Release Date: 2017-04-21
Genre: History

Violence and community were intimately linked in the ancient world. While various aspects of violence have been long studied on their own (warfare, revolution, murder, theft, piracy), there has been little effort so far to study violence as a unified field and explore its role in community formation. This volume aims to construct such an agenda by exploring the historiography of the study of violence in antiquity, and highlighting a number of important paradoxes of ancient violence. It explores the forceful nexus between wealth, power and the passions by focusing on three major aspects that link violence and community: the attempts of communities to regulate and canalise violence through law, the constitutive role of violence in communal identities, and the ways in which communities dealt with violence in regards to private and public space, landscapes and territories. The contributions to this volume range widely in both time and space: temporally, they cover the full span from the archaic to the Roman imperial period, while spatially they extend from Athens and Sparta through Crete, Arcadia and Macedonia to Egypt and Israel.

A Versatile Gentleman

Author: Jan Opsomer
Publisher: Leuven University Press
ISBN: 9789462700765
Release Date: 2016-06-28
Genre: Philosophy

Plutarch was a brilliant Platonist, an erudite historian, a gifted author of highly polished literary dialogues, a priest of Apollo at Delphi, and a devoted politician in his hometown Chaeronea. He felt confident in the most technical and specialized discussions, yet was not afraid of rhetorical generalizations. In his voluminous oeuvre, he appears as a sharp polemicist and a loving father, an ardent pupil but also a kind, inspiring teacher, a sober historian and a teller of wondrous tales. In view of all these different personae, erudite versatility is without any doubt a major characteristic of Plutarch’s works. A Versatile Gentleman is dedicated to Luc Van der Stockt, professor emeritus of Greek language and literature at KU Leuven and a truly versatile gentleman. The volume aims to do justice to his and Plutarch’s versatility by discussing the Chaeronean from many different angles. As such, it sheds new light on the coherence of, and the tensions in, Plutarch’s thinking and writing.

The Birth of the Athenian Community

Author: Sviatoslav Dmitriev
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351621441
Release Date: 2017-10-16
Genre: History

The Birth of the Athenian Community elucidates the social and political development of Athens in the sixth century, when, as a result of reforms by Solon and Cleisthenes (at the beginning and end of the sixth century, respectively), Athens turned into the most advanced and famous city, or polis, of the entire ancient Greek civilization. Undermining the current dominant approach, which seeks to explain ancient Athens in modern terms, dividing all Athenians into citizens and non-citizens, this book rationalizes the development of Athens, and other Greek poleis, as a gradually rising complexity, rather than a linear progression. The multidimensional social fabric of Athens was comprised of three major groups: the kinship community of the astoi, whose privileged status was due to their origins; the legal community of the politai, who enjoyed legal and social equality in the polis; and the political community of the demotai, or adult males with political rights. These communities only partially overlapped. Their evolving relationship determined the course of Athenian history, including Cleisthenes’ establishment of demokratia, which was originally, and for a long time, a kinship democracy, since it only belonged to qualified male astoi.

Creators Conquerors and Citizens

Author: Robin Waterfield
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190234324
Release Date: 2018-01-02
Genre: History

"We Greeks are one in blood and one in language; we have temples to the gods and religious rites in common, and a common way of life." So the fifth-century historian Herodotus has some Athenians declare, in explanation of why they would never betray their fellow Greeks to the enemy, the "barbarian" Persians. And he might have added further common features, such as clothing, foodways, and political institutions. But if the Greeks knew that they were kin, why did many of them side with the Persians against fellow Greeks, and why, more generally, is ancient Greek history so often the history of internecine wars and other forms of competition with one another? This is the question acclaimed historian Robin Waterfield sets out to explore in this magisterial history of ancient Greece. With more information, more engagingly presented, than any similar work, this is the best single-volume account of ancient Greece in more than a generation. Waterfield gives a comprehensive narrative of seven hundred years of history, from the emergence of the Greeks around 750 BCE to the Roman conquest of the last of the Greco-Macedonian kingdoms in 30 BCE. Equal weight is given to all phases of Greek history -- the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods. But history is not just facts; it is also a matter of how we interpret the evidence. Without compromising the readability of the book, Waterfield incorporates the most recent scholarship by classical historians and archaeologists and asks his readers to think critically about Greek history. A brilliant, up-to-date account of ancient Greece, suitable for history buffs and university students alike, Creators, Conquerors, and Citizens presents a compelling and comprehensive story of this remarkable civilization's disunity, underlying cultural solidarity, and eventual political unification.

Prostitution in the Ancient Greek World

Author: Konstantinos Kapparis
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110557954
Release Date: 2017-09-30
Genre: History

Prostitution in the ancient Greek world was widespread, legal, and acceptable as a fact of life and an unavoidable necessity. The state regulated the industry and treated prostitution as any other trade. Almost every prominent man in the ancient world has been truly or falsely associated with some famous hetaira. These women, who sold their affections to the richest and most influential men of their time, have become legends in their own right. They pushed the boundaries of female empowerment in their quest for self-promotion and notoriety, and continue to fascinate us. Prostitution remains a complex phenomenon linked to issues of gender, culture, law, civic ideology, education, social control, and economic forces. This is why its study is of paramount importance for our understanding of the culture, outlook and institutions of the ancient world, and in turn it can shed new light and introduce new perspectives to the challenging debate of our times on prostitution and contemporary sexual morality. The main purpose of this book is to provide the primary historical study of the topic with emphasis upon the separation of facts from the mythology surrounding the countless references to prostitution in Greek literary sources.

Slave Wives Single Women and Bastards in the Ancient Greek World

Author: Morris Silver
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 9781785708640
Release Date: 2018-01-31
Genre: History

Greek scholars have produced a vast body of evidence bearing on nuptial practices that has yet to be mined by a professional economist. By standing on their shoulders, the author proposes and tests radically new interpretations of three important status groups in Greek history: the pallak?, the nothos, and the hetaira. It is argued that legitimate marriage – marriage by loan of the bride to the groom – was not the only form of legal marriage in classical Athens and the ancient Greek world generally. Pallakia – marriage by sale of the bride to the groom – was also legally recognized. The pallak?-wifeship transaction is a sale into slavery with a restrictive covenant mandating the employment of the sold woman as a wife. In this highly original and challenging new book, economist Morris Silver proposes and tests the hypothesis that the likelihood of bride sale rises with increases in the distance between the ancestral residence of the groom and the father’s household. Nothoi, the bastard children of pallakai, lacked the legal right to inherit from their fathers but were routinely eligible for Athenian citizenship. It is argued that the basic social meaning of hetaira (companion) is not ‘prostitute’ or ’courtesan,’ but ‘single woman’ – a woman legally recognized as being under her own authority (kuria). The defensive adaptation of single women is reflected in Greek myth and social practice by their grouping into packs, most famously the Daniads and Amazons.

Early Greek Epic Fragments I

Author: Christos Tsagalis
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110532876
Release Date: 2017-05-22
Genre: Literary Criticism

This book offers a new edition and comprehensive commentary of the extant fragments of genealogical and antiquarian epic dating to the archaic period (8th-6th cent. BC). By means of a detailed study of the multifaceted material pertaining to the remains of archaic Greek epic other than Homer, Hesiod, and the Homeric Hymns, it provides readers with a critical reassessment of the ancient evidence, allows access to new material hitherto unnoticed or scattered in various journals after the publication of the three standard editions now available to us, and offers a full-scale commentary of the extant fragments. This book fills a gap in the study of archaic Greek poetry, since it offers a guiding tool for the further exploration of Greek epic tradition in the archaic period and beyond.

Citizenship in Classical Athens

Author: Josine Blok
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521191456
Release Date: 2017-03-23
Genre: History

What did citizenship really mean in classical Athens? It is conventionally understood as characterised by holding political office. Since only men could do so, only they were considered to be citizens, and the community (polis) has appeared primarily as the scene of men's political actions. However, Athenian law defined citizens not by political office, but by descent. Religion was central to the polis and in this domain, women played prominent public roles. Both men and women were called 'citizens'. On a new reading of the evidence, Josine Blok argues that for the Athenians, their polis was founded on an enduring bond with the gods. Laws anchored the polis' commitments to humans and gods in this bond, transmitted over time to male and female Athenians as equal heirs. All public offices, in various ways and as befitting gender and age, served both the human community and the divine powers protecting Athens.

Solon the Thinker

Author: John David Lewis
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9781472521149
Release Date: 2013-11-01
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

In Solon the Thinker, John Lewis presents the hypothesis that Solon saw Athens as a self-governing, self-supporting system akin to the early Greek conceptions of the cosmos. Solon's polis functions not through divine intervention but by its own internal energy, which is founded on the intellectual health of its people, depends upon their acceptance of justice and moderation as orderly norms of life, and leads to the rejection of tyranny and slavery in favour of freedom. But Solon's naturalistic views are limited; in his own life each person is subject to the arbitrary foibles of moira, the inscrutable fate that governs human life, and that brings us to an unknowable but inevitable death. Solon represents both the new rational, scientific spirit that was sweeping the Aegean - and a return to the fatalism that permeated Greek intellectual life. This first paperback edition contains a new appendix of translations of the fragments of Solon by the author.

Humanitas Vol LXVIII

Publisher: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra / Coimbra University Press
Release Date: 2016-12-29

A Humanitas é a mais antiga revista publicada em Portugal especializada em Estudos Clássicos Greco-Latinos e Renascentistas, mas aberta a contributos de áreas dialogantes (História, Arqueologia, Filosofia, Religião, Arte, Retórica, Receção dos Clássicos, entre outras). Tem mantido um ritmo de publicação anual regular, desde o ano da sua criação, em 1947, e é propriedade do Instituto de Estudos Clássicos da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra. Trata-se de uma revista destinada a académicos e investigadores, tanto nacionais como estrangeiros.

Solon of Athens

Author: Ron Owens
ISBN: 1845194039
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

"Solon is central to all accounts of the very birth of western democracy. He was an accomplished thinker and poet, important to any account of the birth of Greek intellectual life and culture. His life was complex, and his name was legendary within a very short time. Politically, Solon was a figure to whose authority every Athenian democrat wanted to appeal. The technique of making spurious reference to Solon's democratic thought became a part of the new political armory in late fifth century Athens. He is selected, alongside Lycurgus, at the high-point of Plato's Symposium as somebody who engendered laws far finer than any human progeny could. As a poet his early impact is attested again by Plato, when his character 'Critas' introduces the Atlantis story. And while (Solon's) chronology remains hazy, one message is still clear: the admiration for, and classic status of, Solon's poetry came early. As a result of this classic status at least at Athens, he became a central part of Athenian consciousness and cultural identity. Dr. Ron Owens has persisted with the study of this remarkable man, and his dedication has been rewarded by numerous insights that help to read the poems through the history and the man through the poems."-Prof. Harold Tarrant, School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Newcastle, Australia, author of many books on Classical Studies, including Thrasyllan Platonism (Cornell University Press), Skepticism or Platonism? (Cambridge University Press), and Recollecting Plato's Meno (Duckworth) This book addresses the major contexts within which Solon instituted wide-ranging reforms to the Athenian constitution (594-593 BCE). It provides, for the first time in 90 years, a detailed and comprehensive commentary on each of the extant fragments of Solon's poetry. In the light of modern scholarship, Ron Owens sets out the story of Solon's life, and examines the serious political and economic crisis which led to his appointment to high political office; he discusses the manner and consequences of his appointment; seeks to identify the underlying causes of the crisis and the general outlines of the reform measures adopted by Solon; and explores the philosophy and the concept of 'justice' that appears to have underpinned his reform agenda. The work fills a significant gap in archaic Greek scholarship in terms of historical analysis, political development and the beginnings of philosophy, in the archaic period and at Athens. Solon was an historical figure of great significance, yet no one since Woodhouse (1938) has written exclusively on him and not since Linforth (1919) has there been a commentary on each individual fragment of Solon's poetry. While recent scholarship has emphasized particular aspects of Solon's works, or particular developments at Athens in which Solon played a part, this book sets out in full his political and social achievements in the context of the philosophical underpinnings that appear to have privileged the socio-political changes initiated by Solon.

The Organic Chem Lab Survival Manual

Author: James W. Zubrick
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118875780
Release Date: 2016-01-05
Genre: Science

Written for the laboratory that accompanies the sophomore/junior level courses in Organic Chemistry, Zubrick provides students with a valuable guide to the basic techniques of the Organic Chemistry lab. The book will help students understand and practice good lab safety. It will also help students become familiar with basic instrumentation, techniques and apparatus and help them master the latest techniques such as interpretation of infrared spectroscopy. The guide is mostly macroscale in its orientation.

O Livro do Tempo Escritas e reescritas

Author: Maria de Fátima Sousa e Silva
Publisher: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra / Coimbra University Press
ISBN: 9789892612775
Release Date: 2016-12-30

Estes dois volumes reúnem um conjunto de estudos sobre teatro grego e latino (I) e sua recepção (II). Da Antiguidade são considerados, além da análise de diversos textos concretos, aspectos relacionados com a evolução dos géneros trágico e cómico, com os seus agentes e com a função cívica que deles se espera. Os estudos de recepção (II) abrangem colaboradores de um âmbito geográfico alargado e incluem inúmeros estudos de caso, sobretudo no âmbito da literatura e do teatro do mundo latino e ibero-americano. These two volumes collect several studies about Greek and Latin theatre (I) and its reception (II). From Antiquity, beside the analysis of specific texts, are considered aspects related with the evolution of the tragic and comic genres, their agents and their civic function. The reception studies (II) put together collaborators from a large geography and include a big number of case studies, mainly considering literature and theatre from the latin and iberoamerican world.

Athenian Democracy A Sourcebook

Author: Luca Asmonti
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781441165312
Release Date: 2014-12-18
Genre: History

This volume presents a wide range of literary and epigraphic sources on the history of the world's first democracy, offering a comprehensive survey of the key themes and principles of Athenian democratic culture. Beginning with the mythical origins of Athenian democracy under Theseus and describing the historical development of Athens' democratic institutions through Solon's reforms to the birth of democracy under Cleisthenes, the book addresses the wider cultural and social repercussions of the democratic system, concluding with a survey of Athenian democracy in the Hellenistic and Roman age. All sources are presented in translation with full annotation and commentary and each chapter opens with an introduction to provide background and direction for readers. Sources include material by Aristotle, Homer, Aristophanes, Herodotus, Thucydides, Cicero, Tacitus and many others. The volume also includes an A-Z of key terms, an annotated bibliography with suggestions for further reading in the primary sources as well as modern critical works on Athenian democracy, and a full index.