Author: Gérard Bouchard
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Release Date: 2017-01-13
Genre: Political Science
In Social Myths and Collective Imaginaries, G?rard Bouchard conceptualizes myths as vessels of sacred values that transcend the division between primitive and modern. These vessels become so influential as to make an indelible impression on people s minds. "
National myths are now seriously questioned in a number of societies. In the West, for instance, a number of factors have combined to destabilise the symbolic foundation of nations and collective identities. As a result, the diagnosis of a deep cultural crisis has become commonplace. Indeed, who today has not heard about the erosion of common values or the undermining of social cohesion? But to efficiently address this issue, do we know enough about the nature and role of myths in modern and postmodern societies? Against this background, National Myths: Constructed Pasts, Contested Presents relies on a sample of nations from around the world and seeks to highlight the functioning of national myths, both as representations that make sense of a collectivity, and as socially grounded tools used in a web of power relations. The collection draws together contributions from international experts to examine the present state of national myths, and their fate in today’s rapidly-changing society. Can – or must – nations do without the sort of overarching symbolic configurations that national myths provide? If so, how to rethink the fabrics and the future of our societies? This book will appeal to students and scholars interested in sociology, national, identity and memory studies, myths, shared beliefs, or collective imaginaries.
Author: Saverio Giovacchini
Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
Release Date: 2011-10-11
Genre: Performing Arts
Intellectual, cultural, and film historians have long considered neorealism the founding block of post–World War II Italian cinema. Neorealism, the traditional story goes, was an Italian film style born in the second postwar period and aimed at recovering the reality of Italy after the sugarcoated moving images of Fascism. Lasting from 1945 to the early 1950s, neorealism produced world-renowned masterpieces such as Roberto Rossellini’s Roma, città aperta (Rome, Open City, 1945) and Vittorio De Sica’s Ladri di biciclette (Bicycle Thieves, 1947). These films won some of the most prestigious film awards of the immediate postwar period and influenced world cinema. This collection brings together distinguished film scholars and cultural historians to complicate this nation-based approach to the history of neorealism. The traditional story notwithstanding, the meaning and the origins of the term are problematic. What does neorealism really mean, and how Italian is it? Italian filmmakers were wary of using the term and Rossellini preferred “realism.” Many filmmakers confessed to having greatly borrowed from other cinemas, including French, Soviet, and American. Divided into three sections, Global Neorealism examines the history of this film style from the 1930s to the 1970s using a global and international perspective. The first section examines the origins of neorealism in the international debate about realist esthetics in the 1930s. The second section discusses how this debate about realism was “Italianized” and coalesced into Italian “neorealism” and explores how critics and film distributors participated in coining the term. Finally, the third section looks at neorealism’s success outside of Italy and examines how film cultures in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the United States adjusted the style to their national and regional situations.
The Christian myth is entangled with American politics, with the nation's image of its own manifest destiny. 'Christian Mentality' analyses the myths that have shaped America's collective mentality. Concepts that are taken for granted in the formation of American policy - namely power, violence and fear - are examined. The book argues that America must find an image for itself which more truly reflects its reality as a polycultural nation still struggling for social democracy. 'Christian Mentality' will be invaluable to students and scholars interested in the impact of religion on political thought.
Author: Stewart King
Publisher: University of Delaware Press
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Literary Criticism
This compilation of essays centered on Hispanic literary and cultural criticism utilizes space as an operational concept, not only in its real-geographical sense, but in its metaphorical, theoretical, and discursive manifestations, along with the related notions of the visible/invisible, dominant/dominated, empowered/powerless. The essays range from colonial domination and international struggles over territorial claims, to a meditation on the politics of location, to the issue of spatial representation of mature-age women and gay men within a dialectic of visibility/invisibility in Spanish theater and cinema. Stewart King lectures in the Hispanic Studies Program, Monash University, Australia. Jeff Browitt is Head of Latin American Studies in the Institute of International Studies at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Author: Nico Carpentier
Publisher: Hampton Pr
Release Date: 2008-05-31
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
"This book's main objective is to expand discourse theory into the realm of the cultural, by focusing on specific discursive machines and mechanisms in the fields of the media and the arts and literature. The themes vary from war to gaming culture, from new realist poetry to Mario Toral's mural painting, and from literary history to Mexican cinema. The greater number of chapters in this volume deals with a variety of media, including television, newspapers, film, ads, press communiques, online forums and videogames. Content-wise these chapters are primarily discourse-theoretical analyses of a wide range of conflicts and their representations. Although the application of discourse theory is virtually non-existent within the realm of Literary and Art Studies, a substantial number of chapters introduce key discourse-theoretical notions as antagonism and agonism, hegemony, and indeterminacy into these fields."--BOOK JACKET.
Author: Simen Andersen Øyen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-05-19
Science and religion are often viewed as dichotomies. But although our contemporary society is often perceived as a rationalization process, we still need broad, metaphysical beliefs outside of what can be proven empirically. Rituals and symbols remain at the core of modern life. Do our concepts of science and religion require revitalization? Can science itself be considered a religion, a belief, or an ideology? Science's authority and prestige allows for little in the way of alternate approaches not founded in empirical science. It is not unusual to believe that technology and science will solve the world's fundamental problems. Has truth been colonized by science? Have scientific disciplines become so specialized and "operationally closed" that they have constructed barriers to other disciplines as well as the general public? The writers of this book set out to investigate whether the symbols of academia may in some cases take on a quality of sacrality, whether the rule of experts can be said to have the character of a "priesthood of knowledge", whether religion has a place in scientific contexts, and a selection of other questions concerning science and its relations to religious belief.
Author: Ian Brown
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Release Date: 2010-11-26
An historically and critically sound - and contemporary - evaluation of tartan and tartanry based on proper contextualisation and coherent analysis. This critical re-evaluation of one of the more controversial aspects of recent debates on Scottish culture draws together contributions from leading researchers in a wide variety of disciplines, resulting in a highly accessible yet authoritative volume. This book, like tartan, weaves together two strands. The first, like a warp, considers the significance of tartan in Scottish history and culture during the last four centuries, including tartan's role in the development of diaspora identities in North America. The second, like a weft, considers the place of tartan and rise of tartanry in the national and international representations of Scottishness, including heritage, historical myth-making, popular culture, music hall, literature, film, comedy, rock and pop music, sport and 'high' culture. From Tartan to Tartanry offers fresh insight into and new perspectives on key cultural phenomena, from the iconic role of the Scottish regiments to the role of tartan in rock music. It argues that tartan may be fun, but it also plays a wide range of fascinating, important and valuable roles in Scottish and international culture.
America is widely regarded as the ultimate "Christian Nation." Religious language has always been at the forefront of American politics but this has increased since the events of 9/11. 'Myth and the Christian Nation' presents a startling analysis of how and why Christianity and national identity have been woven together in recent American political discourse. Drawing on examples of religious myth-making across the ancient world 'Myth and the Christian Nation' brings the weight of history to bear on America today, a place where myth, monotheism, sovereignty and power can be harnessed together in the service of specific interests. The book invites readers to rethink the role of religion in the construction of social democracy and to see America afresh.
Author: Pforzheimer Professor of Science and Technology Studies John F Kennedy School of Government Sheila Jasanoff
Release Date: 2004-07-31
Genre: Social Science
Notes on contributors Acknowledgements 1. The Idiom of Co-production Sheila Jasanoff 2. Ordering Knowledge, Ordering Society Sheila Jasanoff 3. Climate Science and the Making of a Global Political Order Clark A. Miller 4. Co-producing CITES and the African Elephant Charis Thompson 5. Knowledge and Political Order in the European Environment Agency Claire Waterton and Brian Wynne 6. Plants, Power and Development: Founding the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies, 1880-1914 William K. Storey 7. Mapping Systems and Moral Order: Constituting property in genome laboratories Stephen Hilgartner 8. Patients and Scientists in French Muscular Dystrophy Research Vololona Rabeharisoa and Michel Callon 9. Circumscribing Expertise: Membership categories in courtroom testimony Michael Lynch 10. The Science of Merit and the Merit of Science: Mental order and social order in early twentieth-century France and America John Carson 11. Mysteries of State, Mysteries of Nature: Authority, knowledge and expertise in the seventeenth century Peter Dear 12. Reconstructing Sociotechnical Order: Vannevar Bush and US science policy Michael Aaron Dennis 13. Science and the Political Imagination in Contemporary Democracies Yaron Ezrah 14. Afterword Sheila Jasanoff References Index
Author: David R. Howarth
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Political Science
This multi-focal work brings together commissioned contributions from the Essex School of Political Discourse Theory. Drawing inspiration from the works of Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe, Slavoj Zizek, Jacques Derrida, Michael Foucault and Jacques Lacan, the contributors address particular questions using a common theoretical language. The book contains a clear introductory statement of the theoretical approach used, and concludes with an assessment of the future directions of discourse theory in the social sciences.
Secularism, Theology and Islam offers a uniquely theological analysis of the historic Danish cartoon crisis of 2005-2006, in which the publication of twelve images of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten ignited violent global protests. The crisis represents a politically, culturally, and religiously important event of the early 21st century, and Jennifer Veninga explores the important question of why the cartoons were published in Denmark when they were and why this matters to the larger global community. The book outlines three main interpretations of the affair as they were framed by international news media: as an issue exclusively about freedom of speech, as related to a 'clash of civilizations', or exclusively as a matter of international politics. Whilst these are important to note, the author argues that the crisis was far more complex than any of these interpretations suggest, and argues that an alternative methodology can be found in philosopher Charles Taylor's concept of the 'social imaginary', which refers to the shared norms, expectations, images and narratives of a community or nation that inform many of its shared practices. Describing the Danish social imaginary as a paradox of Christianity and secularism, Veninga explains why the new presence of Islam has been perceived as such a threat to Danish identity. The author also maintains that despite tendencies toward exclusion, the Danish imaginary also supports a move toward authentic religious pluralism. Understanding the Danish cartoon crisis is important for any community struggling with new religious diversity, especially those with largely secular identities. Furthermore, the method used to examine the crisis provides a theological analytical framework applicable to a wide variety of contemporary social and political movements and issues.
Author: Elaine Aston
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2000-05-25
This Companion, first published in 2000, addresses the work of women playwrights in Britain throughout the twentieth century. The chapters explore the historical and theatrical contexts in which women have written for the theatre and examine the work of individual playwrights. A chronological section on playwriting from the 1920s to the 1970s is followed by chapters which raise issues of nationality and identity. Later sections question accepted notions of the canon and include chapters on non-mainstream writing, including black and lesbian performance. Each section is introduced by the editors, who provide a narrative overview of a century of women's drama and a thorough chronology of playwriting, set in political context. The collection includes essays on the individual writers Caryl Churchill, Sarah Daniels, Pam Gems and Timberlake Wertenbaker as well as extensive documentation of contemporary playwriting in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, including figures such as Liz Lochhead and Anne Devlin.