This work makes clear what it means that the precautionary principle represents customary international law. Through the analysis of state practice regarding this principle of international environmental law, it answers crucial questions concerning the conditions triggering a right or duty to take precautionary action; the nature and content of such action; the issue areas to which the principle applies; the allocation of the burden of proof; and the role of socio-economic factors. Ultimately, it details what it takes to act in conformity with the precautionary principle under general international law.
Author: Sacha Prechal
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2011
Legality is a traditional normative concept to regulate the relationship between those in power and those subjected to that power. The principle of legality protects the citizen against the arbitrary use of power, or, more precisely, it demands a legal basis (which itself must be of a certain standard) to legitimize State action. Is legality under siege in Europe? The authors contributing to this provocative and important book answer this question in the affirmative. Twenty-one outstanding European legal scholars expose a spectrum of ways in which the traditional legality principle is under pressure because of the creation of new legal orders, including that of the EU, and the interaction between these new orders and that of the State, combined with such factors as expertise driven governance, difficulties of international organizations to meet their objectives due to a lack of adequate powers, and lack of parliamentary control. The question of whether the main functions of legality - legitimating, attributing and regulating the exercise of public authority - are still fulfilled in the context of the overlapping, interacting, and mutually dependent legal orders of the EU, the ECHR, and the Member States is at the background of all the essays in this volume. Recognizing that legality, if it is to survive, demands rigorous reconsideration of its scope and application, the authors interrogate not only such fundamental democratic issues as who has legitimate power to perform legislative acts and through these to exercise of public power over citizens, but also such urgent European problems as the following: ; the use of the precautionary principle in EU decision-making; the scope of the principle that the exercise of public authority must rest on an act of Parliament; the extent to which the EU can provide a legal basis for action of Member State authorities in the absence of such a basis within Member State legal orders; the constitutional position of independent 'regulators'; the requirements that ECJ and ECHR case law impose on the exercise of public authority; whether legislative results are coherent in the sensitive area of equal treatment; transparency, legal certainty, enforceability, and implementation of EC Directives in the field of workers' involvement; new instruments as the Open Method of Coordination and the involvement of social partners in decision-making; the de facto harmonization of national criminal justice systems; and the prominent role of the EU in the field of data protection. There can be little doubt that the issue of legality and to whom it applies - in a world in which the role of the modern State is changing profoundly - is a crucial one. It is highly important in the context of the ongoing discussion on the meaning of democracy and citizenship. This volume, with its clear message that reconsidering legality demands taking serious issue with the uncertainty engendered by the processes of globalization, will resonate profoundly among practitioners and policymakers in this time of momentous change.
Author: Ana Sofia Barros
Release Date: 2016-10-20
International Organizations and Member State Responsibility: Critical Perspectives compiles novel approaches within academia and legal practice that reflect the evolution of the contemporary law of international (member state) responsibility. This Volume was previously published as International Organizations Law Review Vol. 12, issue 2 (2015).
Author: Erik J. Molenaar
Release Date: 2010-02-08
This work intends to contribute to a better understanding of the international law aspects of the ongoing debate on current and future international governance and regulation of areas beyond national jurisdiction, focusing on principles and objectives, institutional arrangements, entitlements and compliance.
Great uncertainty typically surrounds decisions and management actions in the conservation of biodiversity and natural resource management, and yet there are risks of serious and irreversible harm for both biodiversity and the humans that rely on it. The precautionary principle arguably underlies all international conservation efforts and promotes acting to avoid serious or irreversible environmental harm, despite lack of scientific certainty as to the likelihood, magnitude or cause of harm. This book is the first to examine the application of the precautionary principle to biodiversity conservation and natural resource management, incorporating perspectives from scientists, economists, lawyers and practitioners from both developing and developed countries. It analyses the application and impacts of the principle in many areas including forestry, invasive alien species, wildlife trade, protected areas and fisheries, in a range of national and international contexts. Particular attention is drawn to issues of equity, livelihoods, science and politics, and the book provides guidelines for applying the precautionary principle to biodiversity conservation and natural resource management.
Author: Alex G. Oude Elferink
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 2005
This work looks at topics, which can contribute to an understanding of how the Convention has been adapted to newly arising issues and how further adaptation may be achieved in the future, without a readjustment of the basic legal framework contained in the Convention.
Viewed from the perspective of environmental management, this study describes the implications and applications of the precautionary principle - a theory of avoiding risk even when its likelihood seems remote. This principle has been employed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the North Atlantic Convention, yet it is not widely understood. This study examines the history and context of the principle, and its applications to law, governmental policies, business and investment, scientific research and international relations.