Modern Crystallography III

Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642818356
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

Multiple Diffraction of X Rays in Crystals

Author: Chung In-Hang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642821660
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms and molecules in crystals and the comparable magnitude of x-ray wavelengths and interatomic distances make it possible for crystals to have more than one set of atomic planes that satisfy Bragg's law and simultaneously diffract an incident x-ray beam - this is the so-called multiple diffraction. This type of diffraction should, in prin ciple, reflect three-dimensional information about the structure of the dif fracting material. Recent progress in understanding this diffraction phenome non and in utilizing this diffraction technique in solid-state and materials sciences reveals the diversity as well as the importance of multiple diffraction of x-rays in application. Unfortunately, there has been no single book written that gives a sys tematic review of this type of diffraction, encompasses its diverse applica tions, and foresees future trends gf development. It is for this purpose that this book is designed. It is hoped that its appearance may possibly turn more attention of condensed-matter physicists, chemists and material scientists toward this particular phenomenon, and that new methods of non-destructive analysis of matter using this diffraction technique may be developed in the future.

Crystal Growth for Beginners

Author: I V Markov
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9789813104679
Release Date: 1995-06-29
Genre:

This is the first textbook on nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. It is written from a unified point of view and thus is a noneclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in the field of materials science. The reader is required to possess some knowledge of mathematics and physics. All formulae and equations are illustrated by examples of technological importance. This book gives not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art on the subject. Thus it serves as a valuable reference book for both graduate students and scientific researchers on materials science.

Fundamentals

Author: D. T. J. Hurle
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483291123
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Genre: Science

Volume I - Fundamentals addresses the underlying scientific principles relevant to all the techniques of crystal growth. Following a Foreword by Professor Sir Charles Frank and an historical introduction, the first part contains eight chapters devoted to thermodynamic, kinetic and crystallographic aspects including computer simulation by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. The second part, comprising a further seven chapters, is devoted to bulk transport effects and the influence of transport-limited growth on the stability of both isolated growth forms (such as the dendrite) and arrays, and on the cooperative effects which lead to pattern formation. All the presentations are superbly authoritative.

New Scientist

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Release Date: 1981-11-26
Genre:

New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

Modern Theory of Crystal Growth I

Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642689383
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Our understanding of the basic processes of crystal growth has meanwhile reached the level of maturity at least in the phenomenological concepts. This concerns for example the growth of pure crystals from a low-density nutrient phase like vapor or dilute solution with various aspects of pattern formation like spiral and layer growth, facetting and roughening, and the stability of smooth macroscopic shapes, as well as basic mechanisms of impurity incorporation in melt growth of (in this sense) simple materials like silicon or organic model substances. In parallel the experimental techniques to quantitatively ana lyze the various growth mechanisms have also reached a high level of reproducibility and precision, giving reliable tests on theoretical predictions. These basic concepts and appli cations to experiments have been recently reviewed by one of us (A. A. C. ) in "Modern Crystallography III. Crystal Growth" (Springer Series on Solid State Sciences, 1983). It has to be emphasized, however, that for practical applications we are still unable to quantitatively calculate many important parameters like kinetic coefficients from first principles. For mixed systems such as complex oxides, solutions and systems with chemi cal reactions, our degree of understanding is even lower. As a few examples for present achievements we note that experiments with vapour and molecular beam condensation of alkali halides confirmed the qualitatively predicted mechanisms of screw dislocations and two-dimensional nucleation for layer-growth.

Crystal Growth in Science and Technology

Author: H. Arend
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461305491
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 9780080932286
Release Date: 2011-01-28
Genre: Science

Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts

High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics III

Author: Gottfried Landwehr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642844089
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

High magnetic fields have, for a long time, been an important tool in the investigation of the electronic structure of semiconductors. In recent yearsstudies of heterostructures and superlattices have predominated, and this emphasis is reflected in these proceedings. The contributions concentrate on experiments using transport and optical methods, but recent theoretical developments are also covered. Special attention is paid to the quantum Hall effect, including the problem of edge currents, the influence of contacts, and Wigner condensation in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime. The 27 invited contributions by renowned expertsprovide an excellent survey of the field that is complemented by numerous contributed papers.

Relaxations of Excited States and Photo Induced Phase Transitions

Author: Keiichiro Nasu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642607028
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Message from The Taniguchi Foundation Dr. Kanamori, Distinguished Guests and Friends: The Taniguchi Foundation wishes to welcome the participants of the nine teenth International Symposium on the Theory of Condensed Matter, who have come from within this country and from different parts of the world. The concept of the symposium is unique in that participants, both Japanese and from abroad, are limited in number to small discussion groups, and live together, although for a short period, as a close-knit community. We feel that this kind of environment will assist towards the strengthening of understanding and the fostering of friendship among the attendees. It is easy to talk about, but difficult to realize, the ideal of international friendship and understanding in a world which is steadily growing smaller. So far, the Foundation has invited a total of 149 participants in this division from 24 foreign countries and 299 participants from Japan. And we are all friends. We hope and trust that even after they have reached the heights of academic fame during the coming decades, the participants will continue to join forces and help to forge closer bonds of friendship and cooperation that will make major contributions not only to academia, but also towards world peace and the welfare of mankind. We hope that all the participants will return home with warm memories of both this symposium and the pleasant times that we have shared. Thank you.

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures

Author: Jagdeep Shah
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662037706
Release Date: 2013-11-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures is currently one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed-matter physics. Remarkable recent progress in the generation of tunable femtosecond pulses has allowed direct investigation of the most fundamental dynamical processes in semiconductors. This second edition presents the most striking recent advances in the techniques of ultrashort pulse generation and ultrafast spectroscopy; it discusses the physics of relaxation, tunneling and transport dynamics in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures following excitation by femtosecond laser pulses.

Principles of Magnetic Resonance

Author: Charles P. Slichter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662094419
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

The first edition of this book was written in 1961 when I was Morris Loeb Lecturer in Physics at Harvard. In the preface I wrote: "The problem faced by a beginner today is enormous. If he attempts to read a current article, he often finds that the first paragraph refers to an earlier paper on which the whole article is based, and with which the author naturally assumes familiarity. That reference in turn is based on another, so the hapless student finds himself in a seemingly endless retreat. I have felt that graduate students or others beginning research in magnetic resonance needed a book which really went into the details of calculations, yet was aimed at the beginner rather than the expert. " The original goal was to treat only those topics that are essential to an understanding of the literature. Thus the goal was to be selective rather than comprehensive. With the passage of time, important new concepts were becoming so all-pervasive that I felt the need to add them. That led to the second edition, which Dr. Lotsch, Physics Editor of Springer-Verlag, encouraged me to write and which helped launch the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Now, ten years later, that book (and its 1980 revised printing) is no longer available. Meanwhile, workers in magnetic resonance have continued to develop startling new insights.

Site Symmetry in Crystals

Author: Robert Evarestov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642604881
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Site Symmetry in Crystals is the first comprehensive account of the group-theoretical aspects of the site (local) symmetry approach to the study of crystalline solids. The efficiency of this approach, which is based on the concepts of simple induced and band representations of space groups, is demonstrated by considering newly developed applications to electron surface states, point defects, symmetry analysis in lattice dynamics, the theory of second-order phase transitions, and magnetically ordered and non-rigid crystals. Tables of simple induced respresentations are given for the 24 most common space groups, allowing the rapid analysis of electron and phonon states in complex crystals with many atoms in the unit cell.

Spectroscopy of Mott Insulators and Correlated Metals

Author: Atsushi Fujimori
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642578342
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Extensive studies of high-Tc cuprate superconductors have stimualted investigations into various transition-metal oxides. Mott transitions in particular provide fascinating problems and new concepts in condensed matter physics. This book is a collection of overviews by well-known, active researchers in this field. It deals with the latest developments, with particular emphasis on the theoretical, spectroscopic, and transport aspects.