Justice at Nuremberg traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47, through the eyes of the Austrian émigré psychiatrist Leo Alexander. His investigations helped the United States to prosecute twenty German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The legacy of Nuremberg was profound. In the Nuremberg code - a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics - the judges laid down, for the first time, international guidelines for permissible experiments on humans. One of those who helped to formulate the code was Alexander. Justice at Nuremberg provides a detailed insight into the origins of human rights in medical science and into the changing role of international law, ethics and politics.
Author: N. Al-Rodhan
Release Date: 2012-05-11
Genre: Political Science
Al-Rodhan sheds new light on the debate about the geopolitics of outer space, going beyond applying traditional International Relations approaches to space power and security by introducing a multidimensional spatial framework. The meta-geopolitics framework includes space and expands classical power considerations to cover seven state capacities.
Author: Ulf Schmidt
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
Release Date: 2007
Despite having been revised and criticised over the years, the Declaration of Helsinki remains one of the most important and internationally known ethics codes worldwide. Yet we know relatively little about its historical origins or about the prolonged revision process which accompanied this Ã´living documentÃ¶. The chapters presented in this volume look at the history and theory of human experimentation, assess the role of the Helsinki Declaration in an international context, and illustrate specific issues about the history and practice of research ethics through a number of case studies in the United States, Asia and Europe. To this day, the Declaration is one of the most important landmarks in human subject research which is aimed at protecting experimental subjects in society. The current volume offers a better and historically-informed understanding of the Declaration to ensure that the existing safeguards are not only preserved but developed and improved in the future. Die 1964 verÃ¶ffentlichte Deklaration zu Helsinki ist einer der wichtigsten und international bekanntesten Kodizes zur Forschungsethik, dessen Entstehungsgeschichte von steter Kritik und zahlreichen Ã_berarbeitungen begleitet wurde. Dennoch weiÃ¡ man relativ wenig ber die historischen Wurzeln und Novellierungsprozesse dieses Ã¤gewachsenen DokumentsÃ´ der Medizingeschichte. Bis zum heutigen Tag ist die Deklaration einer der bedeutendsten Wegweiser f r die Forschung am Menschen, deren grundsÃ¤tzliches Ziel es ist, Versuchspersonen in medizinischen Experimenten zu sch tzen. Der Band beleuchtet Geschichte und Theorie der Experimente am Menschen, untersucht die Rolle der Deklaration im internationalen Kontext und illustriert spezifische Themen zur Geschichte und Praxis der Forschungsethik anhand von Fallstudien zu den USA, Asien und Europa. AuÃ¡erdem geben die Studien Einblick in die Entstehungsgeschichte der Deklaration - nicht nur um die bestehenden Standards zum Schutz von Versuchspersonen zu bewahren, sondern auch um diese zuk nftig weiterzuentwickeln und zu verbessern. Aus dem Inhalt Ulf Schmidt / Andreas Frewer: History and Ehtics of Human Experimentation: the Twisted Road to Helsinki. An Introduction History and Theory of Medical Research Ethics Ulrich TrÃ¶hler: The Long Road of Moral Concern: Doctors' Ethos and Statute Law Relating to Human Research in Europe Dietrich von Engelhardt: The Historical and Philosophical Background of Ethics in Clinical Research Ulf Schmidt: The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code Till BÃ¤rnighausen: Communicating Ã´Tainted ScienceÃ¶: The Japanese Biological Warfare Experiments on Human Subjects in China The Helsinki Declaration in an International Context Susan E. Lederer: Research Without Borders: The Origins of the Declaration of Helsinki Povl Riis: Forty Years of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress in Medical Ethics? Kati MyllymÃ¤ki: Revising the Declaration of Helsinki: An Insiders' View Robert Carlson / Kenneth Boyd / David Webb: The Interpretation of Codes of Medical Ethics: Some Lessons from the Fifth Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki David Willcox: Medical Ethics and Public Perception: The Declaration of Helsinki and its Revisions in 2000 Dominique Sprumont / Sara Girardin / Trudo Lemmens: The Helsinki Declaration and the Law: An International and Comparative Analysis History and Ethics of Research - International Perspectives Andreas Frewer: History of Medicine and Ethics in Conflict: Research on National Socialism as Moral Problem Ulf Schmidt: Medical Ethics and Human Experiments at Porton Down: Informed Consent in Britain's Biological and Chemical Warfare Experiments John Williams: The Declaration of Helsinki. The Importance of Context Jonathan D. Moreno: Helsinki into the Future. An Epilogue Key Documents on the History of Research Ethics Circular of the Reich Minister of the Interior Concerning Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation (Berlin, 1931) Ã¹ The Nuremberg Code (1947) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki I (1964) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki II (Tokyo, 1975) Ã¹ Council of Europe: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 1997) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki (2004).
Author: James H. S. Milner
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Release Date: 2009-12-15
Genre: Political Science
How can we understand the plight of refugees in Africa? Why are refugees now spending an average of 17 years in exile? Why have African states required refugees to remain in isolated and insecure camps? Is there a better approach to the needs of refugees in Africa? This book answers these questions by examining the history and politics of asylum in Africa and the response of key African states to the mass arrival and prolonged presence of refugees. By situating the question of refugees within the broader context of African politics, the book outlines the broad range of factors that influence the asylum policies of African states. Building from these lessons, the book outlines the politics of asylum in Africa and proposes a new approach to addressing the needs of the continent's refugees. This approach leads to important lessons not only for the study of asylum in Africa, but also for the future of refugee protection in Africa.
Summary: This pioneering book reveals how nationalism in Ninteenth-century Greece helped women to develop an alternative vision of female politics, history, and citizenship. Shedding new light on women's ideas and beliefs the author brings to life the story of the ideas that formed our societies and individual identities.
This book argues that much of the literature on political leadership has made little meaningful connection with the issues of peace, conflict and divided societies. In providing a critical interpretation of political leadership during the Northern Ireland peace process, Cathy Gormley-Heenan shows how the 'leadership lens' offers insights not offered by conventional analyses of peacemaking processes. Using interviews with political elites in Northern Ireland, the book discusses the confusions, contradictions and chameleonic nature of leadership and its role, capacity and effect.
Investigates the nature and influence of the EU's rotating Council presidency and shows that its role and impact, as well as small states' capacity to make creative use of it have been underestimated. This book includes fresh perspectives on how to measure influence and exert leadership in the EU.
This book is a study of the actors and institutions that shaped decision-making on privatization in the Russian oil industry between 1992 and 2006. Li-Chen analyzes the origins of privatization as a policy on a macro, industry-wide level, as well as presenting three in-depth case studies of privatization on a company level.
Drawing on both Development Studies and post-Soviet literature, this study examines projects in Siberia since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Focusing on critical accounts of development projects in Siberia, managed by the author, this book provides a first-hand account of the successes and failures of development aid.
Author: Christian Thorun
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Political Science
Post-Soviet Russian foreign policy towards the West is characterized by ambiguity. While Moscow retreated from superpower status peacefully, its approach towards the West underwent significant change. It evolved from close cooperation with the West to an assertive defence of Russian interests coupled with confrontational rhetoric. This book takes stock and asks which patterns have emerged from 1992 to 2007. It argues that only by focusing both on external constraints and changes in the Russian leadership's foreign policy thinking can we explain major facets of Russia's conduct. In analysing Russian foreign policy the book develops an original analytical framework for foreign policy analysis, illustrates the evolution of the Russian leadership's foreign policy discourse, and unravels major threads in Russia's conduct in three case studies. The case studies encompass: Moscow's approaches towards NATO and its enlargement, its responses to the Balkan crisis, and its reaction to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks.