"Cognitive Architecture" asks how evolving modalities--from bio-politics to "noo-politics"--can be mapped upon the city under contemporary conditions of urbanization and globalization. Noo-politics, most broadly understood as the power exerted over the life of the mind, reconfigures perception, memory and attention, and also implicates potential ways and means by which neurobiological architecture is undergoing reconfiguration. This volume, motivated by theories such as 'cognitive capitalism' and concepts such as 'neural plasticity, ' shows how architecture and urban processes and products commingle to form complex systems that produce novel forms of networks that empower the imagination and constitute the cultural landscape. This volume rethinks the relations between form and forms of communication, calling for a new logic of representation; it examines the manner in which information, with its non-hierarchical and distributed format is contributing both to the sculpting of brain and production of mind. "Cognitive Architecture" brings together renowned specialists in the areas of political and aesthetic philosophy, neuroscience, socio-cultural and architecture theory, visual and spatial theorists and practitioners.
In Cognitive Architecture, the authors review new findings in psychology and neuroscience to help architects and planners better understand their clients as the sophisticated mammals they are, arriving in the world with built-in responses to the environment that have evolved over millennia. The book outlines four main principles---Edges Matter, the fact people are a thigmotactic or a 'wall-hugging' species; Patterns Matter, how we are visually-oriented; Shapes Carry Weight, how our preference for bilateral symmetrical forms is biological; and finally, Storytelling is Key, how our narrative proclivities, unique to our species, play a role in successful place-making. The book takes an inside-out approach to design, arguing that the more we understand human behavior, the better we can design for it. The text suggests new ways to analyze current designs before they are built, allowing the designer to anticipate a user's future experience. More than one hundred photographs and drawings illustrate its key concepts. Six exercises and additional case studies suggest particular topics - from the significance of face-processing in the human brain to our fascination with fractals - for further study.
Author: John E. Laird
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2012-04-13
In development for thirty years, Soar is a general cognitive architecture that integrates knowledge-intensive reasoning, reactive execution, hierarchical reasoning, planning, and learning from experience, with the goal of creating a general computational system that has the same cognitive abilities as humans. In contrast, most AI systems are designed to solve only one type of problem, such as playing chess, searching the Internet, or scheduling aircraft departures. Soar is both a software system for agent development and a theory of what computational structures are necessary to support human-level agents. Over the years, both software system and theory have evolved. This book offers the definitive presentation of Soar from theoretical and practical perspectives, providing comprehensive descriptions of fundamental aspects and new components. The current version of Soar features major extensions, adding reinforcement learning, semantic memory, episodic memory, mental imagery, and an appraisal-based model of emotion. This book describes details of Soar's component memories and processes and offers demonstrations of individual components, components working in combination, and real-world applications. Beyond these functional considerations, the book also proposes requirements for general cognitive architectures and explicitly evaluates how well Soar meets those requirements.
Author: Antonio Chella
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-09-29
The challenge of creating a real-life computational equivalent of the human mind requires that we better understand at a computational level how natural intelligent systems develop their cognitive and learning functions. In recent years, biologically inspired cognitive architectures have emerged as a powerful new approach toward gaining this kind of understanding (here “biologically inspired” is understood broadly as “brain-mind inspired”). Still, despite impressive successes and growing interest in BICA, wide gaps separate different approaches from each other and from solutions found in biology. Modern scientific societies pursue related yet separate goals, while the mission of the BICA Society consists in the integration of many efforts in addressing the above challenge. Therefore, the BICA Society shall bring together researchers from disjointed fields and communities who devote their efforts to solving the same challenge, despite that they may “speak different languages”. This will be achieved by promoting and facilitating the transdisciplinary study of cognitive architectures, and in the long-term perspective – creating one unifying widespread framework for the human-level cognitive architectures and their implementations. This book is a proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, which was hold in Palermo-Italy from October 31 to November 2, 2012. The book describes recent advances and new challenges around the theme of understanding how to create general-purpose humanlike artificial intelligence using inspirations from studies of the brain and the mind.
Author: Paul Smolensky
Publisher: Mit Press
Release Date: 2006-01
An integrated connectionist/symbolic architecture of the mind/brain, applied to neural/genomic realisation of grammar; aequisition, processing, and typology in phonology and syntax; and foundations of cognitive explanation. Despite their apparently divergent accounts of higher cognition, cognitive theories based on neural computation and those employing symbolic computation can in fact strengthen one another. To substantiate this controversial claim, this landmark work develops in depth a cognitive architecture based in neural computation but supporting formally explicit higher-level symbolic descriptions, including new grammar [Illegible]. Detailed studies in both phonology and syntax provide arguments that these grammatical theories and their neural network realisations enable deeper explanations of early acquisition, processing difficulty, cross-linguistic typology, and the possibility of genomically [Illegible] universal principles of grammar. Foundational questions concerning the explanatory status of symbols for central problems such as the unbounded productivity of higher cognition are also given proper treatment. science through tutorial chapters and numerous expository boxes providing background material from several disciplines. Examples common to different chapters facilitate the transition from more basic to more sophisticated treatments. Details of method, formalism, and foundation are presented in later chapters, offering a wealth of new results to specialists in psycholinguistics, language acquisition, theoretical linguistics, computational linguistics, computational neuroscience, connectionist modelling, and philosophy of mind.
Author: J.A. Michon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-12
Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective represents a European perspective on Soar with the exception of the special contribution from Allen Newell arguing for Unified Theories of Cognition. The various papers derive from the work of the Soar Research Group that has been active at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, since 1987. The work reported here has been inspired in particular by two topics that precipitated the group's interest in Soar in the first place -- road user behavior and the temporal organization of behavior, more specifically planning. At the same time, the various contributions go well beyond the simple use of Soar as a convenient medium for modeling human cognitive activity. In every paper one or more fundamental issues are raised that touch upon the very nature and consistency of Soar as an intelligent architecture. As a result the reader will learn about the operator implementation problem, chunking, multitasking, the need to constrain the depth of the goal stack, and induction, etc. Soar is still at a relatively early stage of development. It does, nevertheless, constitute an important breakthrough in the area of computer architectures for general intelligence. Soar shows one important direction that future efforts to build intelligent systems should take if they aim for a comprehensive, and psychologically meaningful, theory of cognition. This is argued in a powerful way by Newell in his contribution to this volume. For this reason, the Soar system will probably play an important integrative role within cognitive science in bringing together important subdomains of psychology, computer science, linguistics, and the neurosciences. Although Soar is not the only `architecture for intelligence', it is one of the most advanced and theoretically best motivated architectures presently available. Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective is of special interest to researchers in the domains of cognitive science, computer science and artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and the philosophy of mind.
Author: Miklós Győri
Publisher: Akademiai Kiado
Release Date: 2006
The present volume attempts to integrate two streams of cognitive research which often run parallel: largely conceptual investigations on the overall framework of human cognition and the much more empirical study of neurocognitive developmental disorders in this case, autism. The book is partly a conceptual analysis exploring the issue of domain specificity and its place in cognitive theory, but it also offers a detailed summary of the phenomena of autism, a critical evaluation of its cognitive psychological models, and presents new empirical findings on the complexity of beyond-childhood development of theory of mind ability in autism. Besides the integration and an overview of these three major themes, the novelty of the presented theses lies primarily in the comprehensiveness of the offered conceptual framework for domain-specificity, and in the empirical findings which strongly suggest that functioning theory of mind ability and non-theory-of-mind compensatory strategies co-exist
This book presents a new, detailed examination that explains how elegant brains have been shaped in evolution. It consists of 19 chapters written by academic professionals in neuroscience, opening with the origin of single-celled creatures and then introducing primordial types in invertebrates with the great abundance of the brains of vertebrates. Important topics are provided in a timely manner, because novel techniques emerged rapidly—as seen, for examples, in the next-generation sequencers and omics approaches. With the explosion of big data, neural-related genes and molecules is now on the radar. In fact, Europe’s big science and technology projects, a €1 billion plan called the Human Brain Project and the Blue Brain Project to understand mammalian brain networks, have been launched in recent years. Furthermore, with the rise of recently advanced artificial intelligence, there is great enthusiasm for understanding the evolution of neural networks. The views from brain evolution in nature provide an essential opportunity to generate ideas for novel neuron- and brain-inspired computation. The ambition behind this book is that it will stimulate young scientists who seek a deeper understanding in order to find the basic principles shaping brains that provided higher cognitive functions in the course of evolution.
Author: Stephen G. Walker
Release Date: 2013-10-23
Genre: Political Science
Appeasement is a controversial strategy of conflict management and resolution in world politics. Its reputation is sullied by foreign policy failures ending in war or defeat in which the appeasing state suffers diplomatic and military losses by making costly concessions to other states. Britain’s appeasement policies toward Germany, Italy, and Japan in the 1930s are perhaps the most notorious examples of the patterns of failure associated with this strategy. Is appeasement’s reputation deserved or is this strategy simply misunderstood and perhaps improperly applied? Role theory offers a general theoretical solution to the appeasement puzzle that addresses these questions, and the answers should be interesting to political scientists, historians, students, and practitioners of cooperation and conflict strategies in world politics. As a social-psychological theory of human behavior, role theory has the capacity to unite the insights of various existing theories of agency and structure in the domain of world politics. Demonstrating this claim is the methodological aim in this book and its main contribution to breaking new ground in international relations theory.
Author: John R. Anderson
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 2013-11-19
What happens when bad criticism happens to good people? Annoying the Victorians sets the tradition of critical discourse and literary criticism on its ear, as well as a few other areas. James Kincaid brings his witty, erudite and thoroughly cynical self to the Victorians, and they will never read (or be read) quite the same.
This Technical Paper proposes a new cognitive architecture for human performance process (HPP) model research. HPP models are engineering models of human performance. They represent the human information-processing system as a series of subsystems consisting of input and output, memory and processing subsystems. HPP models are used in engineering studies of new systems where the goal of the study is to predict human performance. This report proposes a new cognitive architecture for HPP model research. This new architecture is based upon the holon theory of mind previously proposed by Arthur Koestler. The holon theory of mind proposes that mind is both highly modular and hierarchically organized. The report provides an overview of HPP model research, describes the holon theory of mind, and discusses how this theory can form the basis of a new cognitive architecture for HPP model research ... Human performance mode, Cognitive architectures, Human performance process models, Cognitive psychology, Implementation architectures, Computational theory.
Author: Neil A. Stillings
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 1995-01
Cognitive Science is a single-source undergraduate text that broadly surveys the theories and empirical results of cognitive science within a consistent computational perspective. In addition to covering the individual contributions of psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and artificial intelligence to cognitive science, the book has been revised to introduce the connectionist approach as well as the classical symbolic approach and adds a new chapter on cognitively related advances in neuroscience. Cognitive science is a rapidly evolving field that is characterized by considerable contention among different views and approaches. Cognitive Science presents these in a relatively neutral manner. It covers many new orientations theories and findings, embedding them in an integrated computational perspective and establishing a sense of continuity and contrast with more traditional work in cognitive science. The text assumes no prerequisite knowledge, introducing all topics in a uniform, accessible style. Many topics, such as natural language processing and vision, however, are developed in considerable depth, which allows the book to be used with more advanced undergraduates or even in beginning graduate settings. A Bradford Book
Author: Richard Schweickert
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2012
One of the most successful methods for discovering the way mental processes are organized is to observe the effects in experiments of selectively influencing the processes. Selective influence is crucial in techniques such as Sternberg's additive factor method for reaction times and Jacoby's process dissociation procedure for accuracy. The successful uses of selective influence have encouraged application extensions to complex architectures, to dependent variables such as evoked potentials, and to complex interpretations. But the common themes have become lost in the details of separate uses and specialized terminology. The book gives an introductory and unified account of the many uses of the technique in cognitive psychology. Related models from operations research and human factors are covered. The applications include dual tasks, visual and memory search, timing, categorization, and recall. The book takes a self-contained approach starting with clear explanations of the elementary notions and a building to advanced techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, but has content of interest to all researchers in cognitive science and cognitive engineering.