Many embedded engineers and programmers who need to implement basic process or motion control as part of a product design do not have formal training or experience in control system theory. Although some projects require advanced and very sophisticated control systems expertise, the majority of embedded control problems can be solved without resorting to heavy math and complicated control theory. However, existing texts on the subject are highly mathematical and theoretical and do not offer practical examples for embedded designers. This book is different;it presents mathematical background with sufficient rigor for an engineering text, but it concentrates on providing practical application examples that can be used to design working systems, without needing to fully understand the math and high-level theory operating behind the scenes. The author, an engineer with many years of experience in the application of control system theory to embedded designs, offers a concise presentation of the basics of control theory as it pertains to an embedded environment. Practical, down-to-earth guide teaches engineers to apply practical control theorems without needing to employ rigorous math Covers the latest concepts in control systems with embedded digital controllers
Fast and Effective Embedded Systems Design is a fast-moving introduction to embedded systems design, applying the innovative ARM mbed and its web-based development environment. Each chapter introduces a major topic in embedded systems, and proceeds as a series of practical experiments, adopting a "learning through doing" strategy. Minimal background knowledge is needed to start. C/C++ programming is applied, with a step-by-step approach which allows you to get coding quickly. Once the basics are covered, the book progresses to some "hot" embedded issues – intelligent instrumentation, wireless and networked systems, digital audio and digital signal processing. In this new edition all examples and peripheral devices are updated to use the most recent libraries and peripheral devices, with increased technical depth, and introduction of the "mbed enabled" concept. Written by two experts in the field, this book reflects on the experimental results, develops and matches theory to practice, evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the technology and techniques introduced, and considers applications in a wider context. New Chapters on: Bluetooth and ZigBee communication Internet communication and control, setting the scene for the ‘Internet of Things’ Digital Audio, with high-fidelity applications and use of the I2S bus Power supply, and very low power applications The development process of moving from prototyping to small-scale or mass manufacture, with a commercial case study. Updates all examples and peripheral devices to use the most recent libraries and peripheral products Includes examples with touch screen displays and includes high definition audio input/output with the I2S interface Covers the development process of moving from prototyping to small-scale or mass manufacture with commercial case studies Covers hot embedded issues such as intelligent instrumentation, networked systems, closed loop control, and digital signal processing
Author: Jim Ledin
Publisher: CMP - DO NOT USE
Release Date: 2003-01-12
Using the techniques and reusable code in this work, embedded systems developers can design control systems without the advanced calculus skills that are typically required. It shows how to apply the best software tools for control system design - MATLAB and its tool boxes.
Modern embedded systems require high performance, low cost and low power consumption. Such systems typically consist of a heterogeneous collection of processors, specialized memory subsystems, and partially programmable or fixed-function components. This heterogeneity, coupled with issues such as hardware/software partitioning, mapping, scheduling, etc., leads to a large number of design possibilities, making performance debugging and validation of such systems a difficult problem. Embedded systems are used to control safety critical applications such as flight control, automotive electronics and healthcare monitoring. Clearly, developing reliable software/systems for such applications is of utmost importance. This book describes a host of debugging and verification methods which can help to achieve this goal. Covers the major abstraction levels of embedded systems design, starting from software analysis and micro-architectural modeling, to modeling of resource sharing and communication at the system level Integrates formal techniques of validation for hardware/software with debugging and validation of embedded system design flows Includes practical case studies to answer the questions: does a design meet its requirements, if not, then which parts of the system are responsible for the violation, and once they are identified, then how should the design be suitably modified?
Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: · robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); · intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), · the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolving environments by detecting changes and reacting accordingly; and · a new paradigm that, by accepting results that are correct in probability, allows the complexity of the embedded application the be kept under control. Theories, concepts and methods are provided to motivate researchers in this exciting and timely interdisciplinary area. Applications such as porting a neural network from a high-precision platform to a digital embedded system and evaluatin g its robustness level are described. Examples show how the methodology introduced can be adopted in the case of cyber-physical systems to manage the interaction between embedded devices and physical world. Researchers and graduate students in computer science and various engineering-related disciplines will find the methods and approaches propounded in Intelligence for Embedded Systems of great interest. The book will also be an important resource for practitioners working on embedded systems and applications.
Real-time and embedded systems are essential to our lives, from controlling car engines and regulating traffic lights to monitoring plane takeoffs and landings to providing up-to-the-minute stock quotes. Bringing together researchers from both academia and industry, the Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems provides comprehensive coverage of the most advanced and timely topics in the field. The book focuses on several major areas of real-time and embedded systems. It examines real-time scheduling and resource management issues and explores the programming languages, paradigms, operating systems, and middleware for these systems. The handbook also presents challenges encountered in wireless sensor networks and offers ways to solve these problems. It addresses key matters associated with real-time data services and reviews the formalisms, methods, and tools used in real-time and embedded systems. In addition, the book considers how these systems are applied in various fields, including adaptive cruise control in the automobile industry. With its essential material and integration of theory and practice, the Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems facilitates advancements in this area so that the services we rely on can continue to operate successfully.
Author: Rogelio Lozano
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-02-04
This book presents the basic tools required to obtain the dynamical models for aerial vehicles (in the Newtonian or Lagrangian approach). Several control laws are presented for mini-helicopters, quadrotors, mini-blimps, flapping-wing aerial vehicles, planes, etc. Finally, this book has two chapters devoted to embedded control systems and Kalman filters applied for aerial vehicles control and navigation. This book presents the state of the art in the area of UAVs. The aerodynamical models of different configurations are presented in detail as well as the control strategies which are validated in experimental platforms.
Author: Edward Ashford Lee
Publisher: Lee & Seshia
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Embedded computer systems
This book strives to identify and introduce the durable intellectual ideas of embedded systems as a technology and as a subject of study. The emphasis is on modeling, design, and analysis of cyber-physical systems, which integrate computing, networking, and physical processes.
Author: Alexandru Forrai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-07-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Control system design is a challenging task for practicing engineers. It requires knowledge of different engineering fields, a good understanding of technical specifications and good communication skills. The current book introduces the reader into practical control system design, bridging the gap between theory and practice. The control design techniques presented in the book are all model based., considering the needs and possibilities of practicing engineers. Classical control design techniques are reviewed and methods are presented how to verify the robustness of the design. It is how the designed control algorithm can be implemented in real-time and tested, fulfilling different safety requirements. Good design practices and the systematic software development process are emphasized in the book according to the generic standard IEC61508. The book is mainly addressed to practicing control and embedded software engineers - working in research and development – as well as graduate students who are faced with the challenge to design control systems and implement them in real-time.
The scope of the book covers most of the aspects as a primer on power electronics starting from a simple diode bridge to a DC-DC convertor using PWM control. The thyristor-bridge and the mechanism of designing a closed loop system are discussed in chapter one, two and three. The concepts are applied in the fourth chapter as a case study for buck converter which uses MOSFETs as switching devices and the closed loop system is elaborated in the fifth chapter. Chapter six is focused on the embedded system basics and the implementation of controls in the digital domain. Chapter seven is a case study of application of an embedded control system for a DC motor. With this book, the reader will find it easy to work on the practical control systems with microcontroller implementation. The core intent of this book is to help gain an accelerated learning path to practical control system engineering and transform control theory to an implementable control system through electronics. Illustrations are provided for most of the examples with fundamental mathematics along with simulations of the systems with their respective equations and stability calculations.
Author: James R. Leigh
Release Date: 1987
Genre: Technology & Engineering
'To the surprise of some undergraduates, processes do not carry labels marking their variables nor, alas, are they conveniently classified into linear, nonlinear, stochastic, etc., categories. The ability to come to terms with this situation is a prerequisite for anyone proposing to succeed in an industrial environment.' This quotation from Chapter 1 characterises the viewpoint of the book, which is concerned with the application of control theory to real problems in their industrial context. The book is structured around the following beliefs: (a) Economic aspects must be considered at an early stage of any project. (b) Simple techniques and ready-made manufacturer's solutions should be applied wherever possible. (c) More advanced techniques will be received enthusiastically in those applications where they can offer a genuine contribution. (d) Control systems using distributed microprocessor power will have an impact that is difficult to exaggerate. Control engineers must become familiar with the concepts involved. (e) Familiarity with a wide range of applications is indispensable in developing an efficient approach in the field of applied control theory. This second edition includes new material and supporting references on: robotics control programmable logic controllers self-tuning controllers distributed computer control systems biotechnological control The book should be accessible to a wide variety of engineers. Preferably they should have an elementary knowledge of automatic control theory.
Author: Arben Çela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-11-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Optimal Design of Distributed Control and Embedded Systems focuses on the design of special control and scheduling algorithms based on system structural properties as well as on analysis of the influence of induced time-delay on systems performances. It treats the optimal design of distributed and embedded control systems (DCESs) with respect to communication and calculation-resource constraints, quantization aspects, and potential time-delays induced by the associated communication and calculation model. Particular emphasis is put on optimal control signal scheduling based on the system state. In order to render this complex optimization problem feasible in real time, a time decomposition is based on periodicity induced by the static scheduling is operated. The authors present a co-design approach which subsumes the synthesis of the optimal control laws and the generation of an optimal schedule of control signals on real-time networks as well as the execution of control tasks on a single processor. The authors also operate a control structure modification or a control switching based on a thorough analysis of the influence of the induced time-delay system influence on stability and system performance in order to optimize DCES performance in case of calculation and communication resource limitations. Although the richness and variety of classes of DCES preclude a completely comprehensive treatment or a single “best” method of approaching them all, this co-design approach has the best chance of rendering this problem feasible and finding the optimal or some sub-optimal solution. The text is rounded out with references to such applications as car suspension and unmanned vehicles. Optimal Design of Distributed Control and Embedded Systems will be of most interest to academic researchers working on the mathematical theory of DCES but the wide range of environments in which they are used also promotes the relevance of the text for control practitioners working in the avionics, automotive, energy-production, space exploration and many other industries.
This tutorial reference takes the reader from use cases to complete architectures for real-time embedded systems using SysML, UML, and MARTE and shows how to apply the COMET/RTE design method to real-world problems. The author covers key topics such as architectural patterns for distributed and hierarchical real-time control and other real-time software architectures, performance analysis of real-time designs using real-time scheduling, and timing analysis on single and multiple processor systems. Complete case studies illustrating design issues include a light rail control system, a microwave oven control system, and an automated highway toll system. Organized as an introduction followed by several self-contained chapters, the book is perfect for experienced software engineers wanting a quick reference at each stage of the analysis, design, and development of large-scale real-time embedded systems, as well as for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in software engineering, computer engineering, and software design.